Ethiopian kitfo, raw beef that will melt in your mouth

Sitting down about to dig in to a platter of kitfo

Sitting down about to dig in to a platter of kitfo

Kitfo is like a hamburger, only it’s raw, and filled with spices, and eaten with injera instead of with a bun.

It’s one of the most praised foods in Ethiopia, and it is stunning on the taste buds.

Kitfo - raw beef with spices

Kitfo – raw beef with spices

While I was in Addis Ababa, one day I headed over to Yohannes Kitfo, one of the many well known kitfo restaurants in town.

While some restaurants serve the full range of Ethiopian cuisine, others specialize in just a single or a few dishes.

A kitfo house, such as Yohannes Kitfo restaurant, serves kitfo exclusively.

Kitfo in Ethiopia

Kitfo in Ethiopia

Ethiopian kitfo (ክትፎ) can either be ordered slightly cooked (leb leb) or completely raw.

I chose the completely raw version, wanting to experience the truest purest taste of the beef.

Deep red pile of kitfo

Deep red pile of kitfo

The beef is freshly ground and then mixed with mitmita, a blend of chili, spices, and salt. Then comes a generous anointing of spiced Ethiopian butter known as niter kibbeh.

That’s it.

Ethiopian kitfo is born!

Sometimes it’s just served as a pile of raw minced meat, but it’s also served with a number of salty cheeses and a spoonful of spiced gomen, collard greens.



When you have a traditional kitfo feast in Ethiopia, you’ll receive a variety of breads with your raw meat. Injera, the ubiquitous staple of the country, is always provided.



Along with injera you also get a bread called kocho (or qocho), a thick hearty flatbread made from ensete, similar to a banana. This was my first time ever to sample kocho.

One version was sticky, the other version was toasted and crispy. I especially liked the crispy kocho, it tasted like an incredibly filling cracker.

Along with bits of the raw beef, it was like eating crackers and butter.

Served with cheese and gomen

Served with cheese and gomen

My kitfo arrived, and it was literally a small mountain of raw beef placed before me, cradled in a clay vessel.

The meat was glistening from the light reflecting off the buttered raw meat.

I was thrilled and could barely contain my emotions of such a trophy of a dish.

Spooning out the kitfo

Spooning out the kitfo

You can either grab spoonfuls of raw beef and place them into a piece of injera, or alternatively you can take pieces of injera or kocho and dig straight into the dish. Both ways are equally effective.

A bite of kitfo

A bite of kitfo

I liked the spoon method, allowing me the pleasure of adding a spoon of beef partnered with a bit of cheese and gomen (collard greens).

How does kitfo taste?

I’ve had kitfo quite a few times at Ethiopian restaurants in the United States, and I always enjoy it, but this version at Yohannes Kitfo in Ethiopia was the best I’ve ever had by a long shot.

Honestly, the meat was so tender and so smooth that I really didn’t need to chew. The meat just sort of dissolved into my tongue, the spices and butter enlightening my taste buds.

My first bite was so incredibly good that I actually had to close my eyes and give myself a personal moment of silence to fully appreciate the flavor (I’m serious, video coming soon).

The beef wasn’t gamey at all, but it was rather like a delicate cheese, but herbaceous and spicy at the same time.

Kitfo is truly a meat lovers treat.

Yohannes Kitfo restaurant, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Yohannes Kitfo restaurant, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Yohannes Kitfo, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Price – The massive dish of kitfo could have easily fed 2 – 3 people and it cost 117 ETB ($6.10)
Open hours – lunch and dinner daily

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  1. says

    I’ve only tried Ethiopian food twice, but the second time I did try kitfo. I thought it was fine, but I wasn’t sure why it’s served raw… in that, I don’t understand the rationale behind it. Is it a taste/textural issue, or is there a practical purpose behind it? I also didn’t understand why there was a “partially cooked” version… I think that’s the version we wound up trying and it was really just like the raw version, only a bit warm to the touch.

    All in all, it wasn’t a bad dish and I’d try it again, but it wasn’t my favorite Ethiopian dish, either. Maybe I just have to try it here to really appreciate it?

    • says

      Hey Steph, thank you for sharing, and glad you’ve tried kitfo before and would try it again!

      To be honest, I haven’t done much research about the history of the dish to know how it first began being eaten this way, but I do know that it’s very beloved in Ethiopia – it’s kind of a celebration, special time food. I think it’s a combination of the buttery texture of raw minced meat, paired with the flavor. I’m not sure if it would be so good with something like rice, but with the sour injera it really went well – at least for me.

      I can also say that I’ve had it a few times in the US, and I liked it, but this was by far the best tasting one I’ve ever had!

      • says

        Hey Dan, it’s alright to disagree, but I’d appreciate it if you explained yourself. In my opinion, it’s not just the raw beef that makes it fascinating, it’s atmosphere, the presentation, side dishes and combination of ingredients, and how this dish is such a beloved dish to many Ethiopians.

        • Dan Hardy says

          I do believe you that it tastes good as I trust your taste buds by now :) I just can’t get my head around it to call it fascinating, in my eyes its just raw meat, maybe I have to try it first to understand why you all think its so fascinating.

          • says

            Thanks for sharing Dan – I definitely understand – and this is a dish that’s quite different from a lot of things. I have to admit, I wasn’t expecting it to be as good as it was!

  2. Simon says

    This reminds me of a steak tartar my mum used to make, fresh minced beef, raw egg yolk, sour cucumbers, onion and lots and lots of pepper and a touch of nutmeg. yummy, even thinking of it got me salivating :)

  3. says

    I have never had raw beef but I am curious to try this after your post. I wonder if there are any health issues with eating raw meat? Or is it that the blend of spices they use cure the meat some how?

  4. Tommy Engstrom says

    Amazing website, Mark!

    I have really found a lot of inspiration for my upcoming travels from your blog, thanks!

    It seems that raw meat in various forms exists in many countries, cultures. In Sweden, where I live, we have a dish called “Råbiff” (raw beef). Very fine grounded beef (the most expensive variant in former days was a fillet of beef which was lightly frozen and then scraped with a knife to produce fine bits of meat, nowadays you most likely get “råbiff” sourced from ground (but still quality) beef).

    “Råbiff” is served together with salt, black pepper, chopped beet root, finely chopped yellow and/or red onion, a raw egg yolk in the half of the egg shell (for presentation), some kind of mustard (often dijon mustard) and capers.

    Roasted bread (or bread lightly fried in butter) is also often eaten together with råbiff.

    The meat is often just the meat but some people like to blend a little bit of cognac or similiar in the ground beef. I prefer the råbiff as it is.

    Some also like to fry, brown, the råbiff a few seconds in a very hot pan, perhaps to get the tasty surface from the maillard reaction.

    • says

      Hi Tommy, great to hear from you, and thank you for your kind comments about my website. Thank you for sharing about rabiff, that sounds incredible. Can’t wait to visit Sweden in the future to taste it!

  5. Biruk says

    Really enjoyed the read and it’s kinda funny how I ended up here– looking for a recipe to make kitfo for my wife and I (Ethiopians who are short on cooking skills and paying attention while parents and guardians used to make it for us).
    The story I heard on how it became a norm to eat it raw is quite fascinating imo. It’s said that during war times, marching troops and espionage operations were compromised despite the rugged landscape within which they maneuvered. Later, troops realized that they were giving away their positions when cooking food and from smokes of burning wood. They adopted a method of drying meat (kuanta– a dried meat delicacy now…similar to beef Jerky?) or just eating it raw. It was an act of self – preservation and now, majority of us have developed a taste for it and maaaan I sometimes dream about a handful of kitfo gursha whenever I’m away from home. I enjoy it leb leb (slightly cooked).

    • says

      Hello Biruk, great to hear from you. Thank you for sharing about the history of kitfo, that’s very interesting. So cool how some foods or ways of preparing them become so popular through certain events. Good luck with the cooking, I’m craving some kitfo now too.


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